Getting a beautiful finish is easier than you think
Sanding is both a plague for woodworkers and an essential ingredient of great craftsmanship. You may get everything else right, but if you mess up on the sanding, your project will be second-rate.
Unfortunately, necessity doesn’t make the job fun–it’s easy to lose enthusiasm when you’re covered in sawdust. The key to sanding well is to get the work done as efficiently as possible. And to make that happen, you need the right attitude, equipment and techniques.
Sanding might seem like the final step in a project, but it’s not. The bulk of effective sanding happens at the beginning and middle stages of construction. By the time your project is assembled, you can’t do much more than ease corners and fix up small dings.
I always start sanding my stock after rough-cutting parts to length and width. No matter how smooth a piece of wood seems, don’t be fooled. It still needs to be sanded. Marks left behind by the planer may seem almost invisible at first, but they really jump out when covered by a finish–especially dark stains.
If I’m using finely planed softwood, I’ll complete my initial sanding using a 120-grit disc in a random-orbit sander; make that 80-grit for hardwoods. If the wood surface is noticeably scalloped because it was milled with a poorly tuned thickness planer, use a belt sander oriented in the same direction as the wood grain and the same abrasive grits.
One exception to this rule is when you’re levelling an edge-glued solid wood panel. Sand at 90º to the grain until all the joints are level, then continue to sand parallel to the grain to remove cross-grain scratches. Regardless of the sander or situation, the objective is the same: remove all traces of milling marks. There’s no point in making the wood really smooth now, though. It’s almost certain to get dinged up as you continue working.
Complete the second stage of sanding after the parts are cut to length, once joinery features such as dados, rabbets or biscuit slots are complete. This is the time to bring surfaces to the next level, and a random-orbit sander is the ideal tool, whether you’re using hardwoods or softwoods. Just be sure to increase only one grit level finer from what you used during the first stage. Work the sander back and forth along the grain using light hand pressure.